Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?
Previous Article in Journal
Population Dynamics of Lepidoptera Pests in Eucalyptus urophylla Plantations in the Brazilian Amazonia
Previous Article in Special Issue
Spruce Beetle Biology, Ecology and Management in the Rocky Mountains: An Addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Forests 2014, 5(1), 88-102; doi:10.3390/f5010088

Composition and Elevation of Spruce Forests Affect Susceptibility to Bark Beetle Attacks: Implications for Forest Management

Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural resources, Animals and Environment, University of Padova, Viale dell'Università, 16/a, Legnaro 35020 PD, Italy
Servizio fitosanitario e chimico, ricerca, sperimentazione e assistenza tecnica—ERSA, via Sabbatini 5, Pozzuolo del Friuli 33050 UD, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 November 2013 / Revised: 31 December 2013 / Accepted: 6 January 2014 / Published: 14 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Bark Beetles and Forests)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [774 KB, uploaded 15 January 2014]   |  


The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is one of the most destructive insects infesting spruce forests in Europe. Data concerning infestations of I. typographus occurring over the last 19 years (1994–2012) on the Southern Alps were analyzed in seven spruce forest types: (1) pure spruce plantations; (2) pure spruce reforestations; (3) pure spruce mountain forests; (4) pure spruce alpine forests; (5) spruce-conifer mixed forests; (6) spruce-broadleaf mixed forests; and (7) spruce-conifer-broadleaf mixed forests. The collected data included the amount of I. typographus damage and the location and composition of the infested forests. The results indicate that different forest types are differently susceptible to I. typographus. Plantations, reforestations and mountain spruce forests show mean damage and mean number of infestations higher than other forest types. Within pure spruce forests, alpine forests growing at high elevations (>1300 m) suffer low damage. Furthermore, the mean number of infestation spots recorded annually in the different spruce forest types is negatively correlated with a Naturality Index value. The results suggest that forest composition and elevation are the main factors driving the risk of I. typographus damage. A new management strategy for some spruce forest types is needed, with a progressive reduction of pure spruce forests at low altitude and an increase of broadleaf composition. View Full-Text
Keywords: Scolytinae; Ips typographus; forest management; outbreaks; Southern Alps; Italy Scolytinae; Ips typographus; forest management; outbreaks; Southern Alps; Italy

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Faccoli, M.; Bernardinelli, I. Composition and Elevation of Spruce Forests Affect Susceptibility to Bark Beetle Attacks: Implications for Forest Management. Forests 2014, 5, 88-102.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top