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Materials 2016, 9(9), 751; doi:10.3390/ma9090751

Determination of Actual Friction Factors in Metal Forming under Heavy Loaded Regimes Combining Experimental and Numerical Analysis

1
Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid 28040, Spain
2
Department of Civil, Material and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Malaga, Malaga 29071, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Magd Abdel Wahab
Received: 8 August 2016 / Revised: 26 August 2016 / Accepted: 29 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Analysis of Tribology Behavior of Materials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6051 KB, uploaded 1 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Tribological conditions can change drastically during heavy loaded regimes as experienced in metal forming; this is especially critical when lubrication can only be applied at the early stage of the process because the homogeneous lubricant layer can break along the die-workpiece interface. In these cases, adopting a constant friction factor for the lubricant-surface pair may not be a valid assumption. This paper presents a procedure based on the use of dual friction factor maps to determine friction factors employed in heavy loaded regimes. A finite element (FE) simulation is used to obtain the friction factor map for the alloy UNS A96082. Experiments were conducted using four lubricants (aluminum anti-size, MoS2 grease, silicone oil, and copper paste) to determine the actual friction curves. The experimental procedure is based on the application of lubricant only at the beginning of the first stage of ring compression, and not at intermediate stages as is usual in typical ring compression tests (RCTs). The results show that for small reductions (rh < 20%), the conventional RCT can be applied because the tribological conditions remain similar. For large reductions (rh > 20%), it is recommended to obtain an average value of the friction factor for every lubricant-surface pair in the range of deformation considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: friction; lubricant; FE; tribology; metal alloys; forming; large deformations; experiments friction; lubricant; FE; tribology; metal alloys; forming; large deformations; experiments
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Camacho, A.M.; Veganzones, M.; Claver, J.; Martín, F.; Sevilla, L.; Sebastián, M.Á. Determination of Actual Friction Factors in Metal Forming under Heavy Loaded Regimes Combining Experimental and Numerical Analysis. Materials 2016, 9, 751.

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