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Materials 2016, 9(6), 475; doi:10.3390/ma9060475

Influence of Chlorination and Choice of Materials on Fouling in Cooling Water System under Brackish Seawater Conditions

1
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo 02044-VTT, Finland
2
Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Eurajoki 27160, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hideyuki Kanematsu
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 25 May 2016 / Accepted: 31 May 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm and Materials Science)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [11461 KB, uploaded 15 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Cooling systems remove heat from components and industrial equipment. Water cooling, employing natural waters, is typically used for cooling large industrial facilities, such as power plants, factories or refineries. Due to moderate temperatures, cooling water cycles are susceptible to biofouling, inorganic fouling and scaling, which may reduce heat transfer and enhance corrosion. Hypochlorite treatment or antifouling coatings are used to prevent biological fouling in these systems. In this research, we examine biofouling and materials’ degradation in a brackish seawater environment using a range of test materials, both uncoated and coated. The fouling and corrosion resistance of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), super austenitic stainless steel (254SMO) and epoxy-coated carbon steel (Intershield Inerta160) were studied in the absence and presence of hypochlorite. Our results demonstrate that biological fouling is intensive in cooling systems using brackish seawater in sub-arctic areas. The microfouling comprised a vast diversity of bacteria, archaea, fungi, algae and protozoa. Chlorination was effective against biological fouling: up to a 10–1000-fold decrease in bacterial and archaeal numbers was detected. Chlorination also changed the diversity of the biofilm-forming community. Nevertheless, our results also suggest that chlorination enhances cracking of the epoxy coating. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofouling; microbial influenced corrosion; Baltic Sea; biofilm; materials science biofouling; microbial influenced corrosion; Baltic Sea; biofilm; materials science
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Rajala, P.; Bomberg, M.; Huttunen-Saarivirta, E.; Priha, O.; Tausa, M.; Carpén, L. Influence of Chlorination and Choice of Materials on Fouling in Cooling Water System under Brackish Seawater Conditions. Materials 2016, 9, 475.

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