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Materials 2016, 9(4), 285; doi:10.3390/ma9040285

A Hydrogel Model Incorporating 3D-Plotted Hydroxyapatite for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering

Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, 60 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, Queensland 4059, Australia
Centre for Translational Bone, Joint and Soft Tissue Research, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden D-01307, Germany
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Franz Weber
Received: 26 January 2016 / Revised: 24 March 2016 / Accepted: 6 April 2016 / Published: 14 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Hydrogels for (Bio)printing Applications)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4011 KB, uploaded 14 April 2016]   |  


The concept of biphasic or multi-layered compound scaffolds has been explored within numerous studies in the context of cartilage and osteochondral regeneration. To date, no system has been identified that stands out in terms of superior chondrogenesis, osteogenesis or the formation of a zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC). Herein we present a 3D plotted scaffold, comprising an alginate and hydroxyapatite paste, cast within a photocrosslinkable hydrogel made of gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA), or GelMA with hyaluronic acid methacrylate (HAMA). We hypothesized that this combination of 3D plotting and hydrogel crosslinking would form a high fidelity, cell supporting structure that would allow localization of hydroxyapatite to the deepest regions of the structure whilst taking advantage of hydrogel photocrosslinking. We assessed this preliminary design in terms of chondrogenesis in culture with human articular chondrocytes, and verified whether the inclusion of hydroxyapatite in the form presented had any influence on the formation of the ZCC. Whilst the inclusion of HAMA resulted in a better chondrogenic outcome, the effect of HAP was limited. We overall demonstrated that formation of such compound structures is possible, providing a foundation for future work. The development of cohesive biphasic systems is highly relevant for current and future cartilage tissue engineering. View Full-Text
Keywords: cartilage tissue engineering; hydrogel; 3D plotting; hydroxyapatite; gelatin; alginate; chondrocyte; chondrogenesis cartilage tissue engineering; hydrogel; 3D plotting; hydroxyapatite; gelatin; alginate; chondrocyte; chondrogenesis

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bartnikowski, M.; Akkineni, A.R.; Gelinsky, M.; Woodruff, M.A.; Klein, T.J. A Hydrogel Model Incorporating 3D-Plotted Hydroxyapatite for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering. Materials 2016, 9, 285.

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