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Materials 2016, 9(4), 251; doi:10.3390/ma9040251

Removal of 4-Chlorophenol from Contaminated Water Using Activated Carbon from Dried Date Pits: Equilibrium, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics Analyses

1
Chemical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P. O. Box 3030, Irbid 22110, Jordan
2
Jordan Atomic Energy Commission, P. O. Box 70, Amman 11934, Jordan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carlos Lodeiro
Received: 27 January 2016 / Revised: 16 March 2016 / Accepted: 21 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
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Abstract

Five different activated carbons (ACs) have been prepared from dried date pits using air and phosphoric acid as activating agents. The used phosphoric acid:date pit ratio dictated the characteristics of the prepared ACs; the equivalent BET-nitrogen surface area varied from 794 m2/g for a ratio of 5:1, to 1707 m2/g for a ratio of 2:1, whereas the micropore volume changed in value from 0.24 cm3/g for the 5:1 ratio to 0.59 cm3/g for the 2:1 ratio. The prepared ACs were tested to remove 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) from aqueous solutions by means of batch adsorption process. The prepared 2:1 AC exhibited the highest uptake with a maximum of 525 mg/g. Equilibrium pH studies showed that 4-CP removal was pH dependent; the maximum uptake occurred at an equilibrium pH value of 5.5. Dynamic studies showed that 4-CP uptake on 2:1 AC is rapid, with 80% of the maximum uptake achieved during the first 40 min. Both surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion were identified to be effective adsorption mechanisms. Kinetic studies indicated a pseudo second-order reaction. Results of equilibrium adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption of the 4-CP on 2:1 AC is best described by the Langmuir model. The thermodynamics parameters of the adsorption (ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0) were determined by studying the adsorption equilibrium at different temperatures. The values of these parameters indicated the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption phenomenon of 4-CP on the prepared ACs. View Full-Text
Keywords: adsorption; activated carbon; 4-chlorophenol; toxic-pollutants removal; water purification adsorption; activated carbon; 4-chlorophenol; toxic-pollutants removal; water purification
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Allaboun, H.; Abu Al-Rub, F.A. Removal of 4-Chlorophenol from Contaminated Water Using Activated Carbon from Dried Date Pits: Equilibrium, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics Analyses. Materials 2016, 9, 251.

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