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Materials 2016, 9(12), 979; doi:10.3390/ma9120979

Conversion of Biowaste Asian Hard Clam (Meretrix lusoria) Shells into White-Emitting Phosphors for Use in Neutral White LEDs

1
Institute of Optoelectronic Sciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, 2 Pei Ning Road, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
2
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, 2 Pei Ning Road, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
3
National Taiwan Ocean University Center of Excellence for the Oceans, 2 Pei Ning Road, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dirk Poelman
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
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Abstract

The increasing volume and complexity of waste associated with the modern economy poses a serious risk to ecosystems and human health. However, the remanufacturing and recycling of waste into usable products can lead to substantial resource savings. In the present study, clam shell waste was first transformed into pure and well-crystallized single-phase white light-emitting phosphor Ca9Gd(PO4)7:Eu2+,Mn2+ materials. The phosphor Ca9Gd(PO4)7:Eu2+,Mn2+ materials were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method and the carbothermic reduction process, and then characterized and analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The structural and luminescent properties of the phosphors were investigated as well. The PL and quantum efficiency measurements showed that the luminescence properties of clam shell-based phosphors were comparable to that of the chemically derived phosphors. Moreover, white light-emitting diodes were fabricated through the integration of 380 nm chips and single-phase white light-emitting phosphors (Ca0.979Eu0.006Mn0.015)9Gd(PO4)7 into a single package of a white light emitting diode (WLED) emitting a neutral white light of 5298 K with color coordinates of (0.337, 0.344). View Full-Text
Keywords: shell waste; solid-state reaction; carbothermic reaction; phosphor; near-UV shell waste; solid-state reaction; carbothermic reaction; phosphor; near-UV
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, T.-Y.; Wang, C.-M.; Lin, T.-Y.; Lin, H.-M. Conversion of Biowaste Asian Hard Clam (Meretrix lusoria) Shells into White-Emitting Phosphors for Use in Neutral White LEDs. Materials 2016, 9, 979.

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