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Materials 2015, 8(8), 5426-5439; doi:10.3390/ma8085253

Isolation and Characterization of Nano-Hydroxyapatite from Salmon Fish Bone

Marine Bioprocess Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, Korea
Department of Marine-bio Convergence Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, Korea
Stem Cell Unit, Department of Anatomy, King Saud University, Riyadh 12372, Saudi Arabia
Dental Biomaterials Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh 12372, Saudi Arabia
Specialized Graduate School Science & Technology Convergence, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nicola Pugno
Received: 5 June 2015 / Revised: 6 August 2015 / Accepted: 7 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [8464 KB, uploaded 21 August 2015]   |  


Nano-Hydroxyapatite (nHA) was isolated from salmon bone by alkaline hydrolysis. The resulting nHA was characterized using several analytical tools, including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), to determine the purity of the nHA sample. The removal of organic matter from the raw fish was confirmed by TGA. FT-IR confirmed the presence of a carbonated group and the similarities to synthetic Sigma HA. XRD revealed that the isolated nHA was amorphous. Microscopy demonstrated that the isolated nHA possessed a nanostructure with a size range of 6–37 nm. The obtained nHA interacted with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and was non-toxic. Increased mineralization was observed for nHA treated MSCs compared to the control group. These results suggest that nHA derived from salmon is a promising biomaterial in the field of bone tissue engineering. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydroxyapatite; salmon; fish; alkaline hydrolysis hydroxyapatite; salmon; fish; alkaline hydrolysis

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Venkatesan, J.; Lowe, B.; Manivasagan, P.; Kang, K.-H.; Chalisserry, E.P.; Anil, S.; Kim, D.G.; Kim, S.-K. Isolation and Characterization of Nano-Hydroxyapatite from Salmon Fish Bone. Materials 2015, 8, 5426-5439.

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