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Materials 2015, 8(7), 4491-4504; doi:10.3390/ma8074491

Human Dental Pulp Cells Responses to Apatite Precipitation from Dicalcium Silicates

1
School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City 40447, Taiwan
2
Department of Stomatology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 40447, Taiwan
3
Printing Medical Research Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City 40447, Taiwan
4
Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City 40447, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Klara Hernadi
Received: 2 June 2015 / Revised: 8 July 2015 / Accepted: 15 July 2015 / Published: 20 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Abstract

Unraveling the mechanisms behind the processes of cell attachment and the enhanced proliferation that occurs as a response to the presence of calcium silicate-based materials needs to be better understood so as to expand the applications of silicate-based materials. Ions in the environment may influence apatite precipitation and affect silicate ion release from silicate-based materials. Thus, the involvement of apatite precipitate in the regulation of cell behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) is also investigated in the present study, along with an investigation of the specific role of cell morphology and osteocalcin protein expression cultured on calcium silicate (CS) with different Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM). The microstructure and component of CS cement immersion in DMEM and P-free DMEM are analyzed. In addition, when hDPCs are cultured on CS with two DMEMs, we evaluate fibronectin (FN) and collagen type I (COL) secretion during the cell attachment stage. The facilitation of cell adhesion on CS has been confirmed and observed both by scanning with an electron microscope and using immunofluorescence imaging. The results indicate that CS is completely covered by an apatite layer with tiny spherical shapes on the surface in the DMEM, but not in the P-free DMEM. Compared to the P-free DMEM, the lower Ca ion in the DMEM may be attributed to the formation of the apatite on the surfaces of specimens as a result of consumption of the Ca ion from the DMEM. Similarly, the lower Si ion in the CS-soaked DMEM is attributed to the shielding effect of the apatite layer. The P-free DMEM group releases more Si ion increased COL and FN secretion, which promotes cell attachment more effectively than DMEM. This study provides new and important clues regarding the major effects of Si-induced cell behavior as well as the precipitated apatite-inhibited hDPC behavior on these materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium silicate cement; apatite precipitated; human dental pulp cell; cell adhesion; fibronectin; collagen calcium silicate cement; apatite precipitated; human dental pulp cell; cell adhesion; fibronectin; collagen
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lai, W.-Y.; Chen, Y.-W.; Kao, C.-T.; Hsu, T.-T.; Huang, T.-H.; Shie, M.-Y. Human Dental Pulp Cells Responses to Apatite Precipitation from Dicalcium Silicates. Materials 2015, 8, 4491-4504.

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