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Materials 2015, 8(11), 7322-7341; doi:10.3390/ma8115382

Damage Characterization of Bio and Green Polyethylene–Birch Composites under Creep and Cyclic Testing with Multivariable Acoustic Emissions

1
Laboratory of mechanics and eco-materials, University of Quebec at Trois-Rivières, 3351, boul. des Forges, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières (Québec) G9A 5H7, Canada
2
Laboratory of biomaterials, University of Quebec at Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445, boul. de l'Université, Rouyn-Noranda (Quebec) J9X 5E4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Macro Morreale
Received: 6 August 2015 / Accepted: 14 October 2015 / Published: 2 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Composites)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4099 KB, uploaded 2 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Despite the knowledge gained in recent years regarding the use of acoustic emissions (AEs) in ecologically friendly, natural fiber-reinforced composites (including certain composites with bio-sourced matrices), there is still a knowledge gap in the understanding of the difference in damage behavior between green and biocomposites. Thus, this article investigates the behavior of two comparable green and biocomposites with tests that better reflect real-life applications, i.e., load-unloading and creep testing, to determine the evolution of the damage process. Comparing the mechanical results with the AE, it can be concluded that the addition of a coupling agent (CA) markedly reduced the ratio of AE damage to mechanical damage. CA had an extremely beneficial effect on green composites because the Kaiser effect was dominant during cyclic testing. During the creep tests, the use of a CA also avoided the transition to new damaging phases in both composites. The long-term applications of PE green material must be chosen carefully because bio and green composites with similar properties exhibited different damage processes in tests such as cycling and creep that could not be previously understood using only monotonic testing. View Full-Text
Keywords: biocomposites; green composites; damage modes; acoustic emission; fuzzy logic biocomposites; green composites; damage modes; acoustic emission; fuzzy logic
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bravo, A.; Toubal, L.; Koffi, D.; Erchiqui, F. Damage Characterization of Bio and Green Polyethylene–Birch Composites under Creep and Cyclic Testing with Multivariable Acoustic Emissions. Materials 2015, 8, 7322-7341.

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