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Materials 2013, 6(5), 1767-1778; doi:10.3390/ma6051767

Characterization of Zeolite in Zeolite-Geopolymer Hybrid Bulk Materials Derived from Kaolinitic Clays

* ,
Department of Environmental and Materials Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 March 2013 / Revised: 7 April 2013 / Accepted: 24 April 2013 / Published: 6 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geopolymers and Geopolymeric Materials)
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Zeolite-geopolymer hybrid materials have been formed when kaolin was used as a starting material. Their characteristics are of interest because they can have a wide pore size distribution with micro- and meso-pores due to the zeolite and geopolymer, respectively. In this study, Zeolite-geopolymer hybrid bulk materials were fabricated using four kinds of kaolinitic clays (a halloysite and three kinds of kaolinite). The kaolinitic clays were first calcined at 700 °C for 3 h to transform into the amorphous aluminosilicate phases. Alkali-activation treatment of the metakaolin yielded bulk materials with different amounts and types of zeolite and different compressive strength. This study investigated the effects of the initial kaolinitic clays on the amount and types of zeolite in the resultant geopolymers as well as the strength of the bulk materials. The kaolinitic clays and their metakaolin were characterized by XRD analysis, chemical composition, crystallite size, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR analysis, and specific surface area measurements. The correlation between the amount of zeolite formed and the compressive strength of the resultant hybrid bulk materials, previously reported by other researchers was not positively observed. In the studied systems, the effects of Si/Al and crystalline size were observed. When the atomic ratio of Si/Al in the starting kaolinitic clays increased, the compressive strength of the hybrid bulk materials increased. The crystallite size of the zeolite in the hybrid bulk materials increased with decreasing compressive strength of the hybrid bulk materials.
Keywords: geopolymer; zeolite; kaolin; compressive strength geopolymer; zeolite; kaolin; compressive strength
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Takeda, H.; Hashimoto, S.; Yokoyama, H.; Honda, S.; Iwamoto, Y. Characterization of Zeolite in Zeolite-Geopolymer Hybrid Bulk Materials Derived from Kaolinitic Clays. Materials 2013, 6, 1767-1778.

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