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Materials 2013, 6(10), 4324-4344; doi:10.3390/ma6104324
Article

Preparation and Characterization of Cu and Ni on Alumina Supports and Their Use in the Synthesis of Low-Temperature Metal-Phthalocyanine Using a Parallel-Plate Reactor

1
, 1,2,* , 1
 and 1
Received: 20 August 2013; Accepted: 23 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
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Abstract: Ni- and Cu/alumina powders were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and N2 physisorption isotherms were also determined. The Ni/Al2O3 sample reveled agglomerated (1 μm) of nanoparticles of Ni (30–80 nm) however, NiO particles were also identified, probably for the low temperature during the H2 reduction treatment (350 °C), the Cu/Al2O3 sample presented agglomerates (1–1.5 μm) of nanoparticles (70–150 nm), but only of pure copper. Both surface morphologies were different, but resulted in mesoporous material, with a higher specificity for the Ni sample. The surfaces were used in a new proposal for producing copper and nickel phthalocyanines using a parallel-plate reactor. Phthalonitrile was used and metallic particles were deposited on alumina in ethanol solution with CH3ONa at low temperatures; ≤60 °C. The mass-transfer was evaluated in reaction testing with a recent three-resistance model. The kinetics were studied with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The activation energy and Thiele modulus revealed a slow surface reaction. The nickel sample was the most active, influenced by the NiO morphology and phthalonitrile adsorption.
Keywords: Ni/Al2O3; Cu/Al2O3; phthalocyanine; phthalonitrile; Ni-phthalocyanine; Cu-phthalocyanine; parallel-plate reactor Ni/Al2O3; Cu/Al2O3; phthalocyanine; phthalonitrile; Ni-phthalocyanine; Cu-phthalocyanine; parallel-plate reactor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sánchez-De la Torre, F.; De la Rosa, J.R.; Kharisov, B.I.; Lucio-Ortiz, C.J. Preparation and Characterization of Cu and Ni on Alumina Supports and Their Use in the Synthesis of Low-Temperature Metal-Phthalocyanine Using a Parallel-Plate Reactor. Materials 2013, 6, 4324-4344.

AMA Style

Sánchez-De la Torre F, De la Rosa JR, Kharisov BI, Lucio-Ortiz CJ. Preparation and Characterization of Cu and Ni on Alumina Supports and Their Use in the Synthesis of Low-Temperature Metal-Phthalocyanine Using a Parallel-Plate Reactor. Materials. 2013; 6(10):4324-4344.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sánchez-De la Torre, Fernando; De la Rosa, Javier R.; Kharisov, Boris I.; Lucio-Ortiz, Carlos J. 2013. "Preparation and Characterization of Cu and Ni on Alumina Supports and Their Use in the Synthesis of Low-Temperature Metal-Phthalocyanine Using a Parallel-Plate Reactor." Materials 6, no. 10: 4324-4344.


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