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Materials 2013, 6(10), 4324-4344; doi:10.3390/ma6104324
Article

Preparation and Characterization of Cu and Ni on Alumina Supports and Their Use in the Synthesis of Low-Temperature Metal-Phthalocyanine Using a Parallel-Plate Reactor

1
,
1,2,* , 1
 and
1
1 Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Ave. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, N. L. 64451, Mexico 2 Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Centro de Innovación, Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería y Tecnología (CIIDIT), Km 10 de la nueva carretera al Aeropuerto Internacional de Monterrey, PIIT Monterrey, Apodaca, Nuevo León 66600, Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 August 2013 / Accepted: 23 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
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Abstract

Ni- and Cu/alumina powders were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and N2 physisorption isotherms were also determined. The Ni/Al2O3 sample reveled agglomerated (1 μm) of nanoparticles of Ni (30–80 nm) however, NiO particles were also identified, probably for the low temperature during the H2 reduction treatment (350 °C), the Cu/Al2O3 sample presented agglomerates (1–1.5 μm) of nanoparticles (70–150 nm), but only of pure copper. Both surface morphologies were different, but resulted in mesoporous material, with a higher specificity for the Ni sample. The surfaces were used in a new proposal for producing copper and nickel phthalocyanines using a parallel-plate reactor. Phthalonitrile was used and metallic particles were deposited on alumina in ethanol solution with CH3ONa at low temperatures; ≤60 °C. The mass-transfer was evaluated in reaction testing with a recent three-resistance model. The kinetics were studied with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The activation energy and Thiele modulus revealed a slow surface reaction. The nickel sample was the most active, influenced by the NiO morphology and phthalonitrile adsorption.
Keywords: Ni/Al2O3; Cu/Al2O3; phthalocyanine; phthalonitrile; Ni-phthalocyanine; Cu-phthalocyanine; parallel-plate reactor Ni/Al2O3; Cu/Al2O3; phthalocyanine; phthalonitrile; Ni-phthalocyanine; Cu-phthalocyanine; parallel-plate reactor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Sánchez-De la Torre, F.; De la Rosa, J.R.; Kharisov, B.I.; Lucio-Ortiz, C.J. Preparation and Characterization of Cu and Ni on Alumina Supports and Their Use in the Synthesis of Low-Temperature Metal-Phthalocyanine Using a Parallel-Plate Reactor. Materials 2013, 6, 4324-4344.

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