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Materials 2011, 4(1), 327-338; doi:10.3390/ma4010327

Cell-Based Fabrication of Organic/Inorganic Composite Gel Material

1,* , 1, 1, 1, 1 and 2
1 Department of Oromaxillofacial Regeneration, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan 2 Division of Materials & Manufacturing Science, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2010 / Accepted: 21 January 2011 / Published: 24 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Biomaterials 2011)
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Biomaterials containing components similar to the native biological tissue would have benefits as an implantable scaffold material. To obtain such biomimetic materials, cells may be great contributors because of their crucial roles in synthetic organics. In addition, the synthesized organics—especially those derived from osteogenic differentiated cells—become a place where mineral crystals nucleate and grow even in vitro. Therefore to fabricate an organic/inorganic composite material, which is similar to the biological osteoid tissue, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were cultured in a 3D fibrin gel in this study. BMSCs secreted bone-related proteins that enhanced the biomineralization within the gel when the cells were cultured with an osteogenic differentiation medium. The compositions of both synthesized matrices and precipitated minerals in the obtained materials altered depending on the cell culture period. The mineral obtained in the 3D gel showed low crystalline hydroxyapatite. The composite materials also showed excellent osteoconductivity with new bone formation when implanted in mice tibiae. Thus, we demonstrated the contributions of cells for fabricating implantable organic/inorganic composite gel materials and a method for controlling the material composition in the gel. This cell-based material fabrication method would be a novel method to fabricate organic/inorganic composite biomimetic materials for bone tissue engineering.
Keywords: hydrogel; organic/inorganic composite; 3D; biomimetic material hydrogel; organic/inorganic composite; 3D; biomimetic material
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Matsumoto, T.; Mizuno, A.; Kashiwagi, M.; Yoshida, S.-S.; Sasaki, J.-I.; Nakano, T. Cell-Based Fabrication of Organic/Inorganic Composite Gel Material. Materials 2011, 4, 327-338.

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