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Stability Criteria of Fullerene-like Nanoparticles: Comparing V2O5 to Layered Metal Dichalcogenides and Dihalides
Materials and Interfaces Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
Institute of Solid State Research and Ernst-Ruska Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Research Centre Jülich GmbH, Germany
Electron Microscopy Unit, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
Chemical Physics Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2010; in revised form: 21 July 2010 / Accepted: 9 August 2010 / Published: 18 August 2010
Abstract: Numerous examples of closed-cage nanostructures, such as nested fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes, formed by the folding of materials with layered structure are known. These compounds include WS2, NiCl2, CdCl2, Cs2O, and recently V2O5. Layered materials, whose chemical bonds are highly ionic in character, possess relatively stiff layers, which cannot be evenly folded. Thus, stress-relief generally results in faceted nanostructures seamed by edge-defects. V2O5, is a metal oxide compound with a layered structure. The study of the seams in nearly perfect inorganic "fullerene-like" hollow V2O5 nanoparticles (NIF-V2O5) synthesized by pulsed laser ablation (PLA), is discussed in the present work. The relation between the formation mechanism and the seams between facets is examined. The formation mechanism of the NIF-V2O5 is discussed in comparison to fullerene-like structures of other layered materials, like IF structures of MoS2, CdCl2, and Cs2O. The criteria for the perfect seaming of such hollow closed structures are highlighted.
Keywords: vanadium; inorganic; fullerenes; laser ablation; TEM; stability
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Levi, R.; Bar-Sadan, M.; Albu-Yaron, A.; Popovitz-Biro, R.; Houben, L.; Prior, Y.; Tenne, R. Stability Criteria of Fullerene-like Nanoparticles: Comparing V2O5 to Layered Metal Dichalcogenides and Dihalides. Materials 2010, 3, 4428-4445.
Levi R, Bar-Sadan M, Albu-Yaron A, Popovitz-Biro R, Houben L, Prior Y, Tenne R. Stability Criteria of Fullerene-like Nanoparticles: Comparing V2O5 to Layered Metal Dichalcogenides and Dihalides. Materials. 2010; 3(8):4428-4445.
Levi, Roi; Bar-Sadan, Maya; Albu-Yaron, Ana; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Houben, Lothar; Prior, Yehiam; Tenne, Reshef. 2010. "Stability Criteria of Fullerene-like Nanoparticles: Comparing V2O5 to Layered Metal Dichalcogenides and Dihalides." Materials 3, no. 8: 4428-4445.