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Materials 2010, 3(6), 3642-3653; doi:10.3390/ma3063642

Ti-doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared at Different Ambient Conditions: Electronic Structures and Magnetic Properties

1,4, 1,2,* , 3, 3, 1,4, 1,4,5 and 1
1 Physics Department, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, 117542, Singapore 2 Institute for Synchrotron Radiation, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76344, Germany 3 SPring-8/JASRI, Hyogo, 679-5198, Japan 4 NanoCore, National University of Singapore, 117576, Singapore 5 Singapore Synchrotron Light Source, National University of Singapore, 117603, Singapore
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 April 2010 / Revised: 27 May 2010 / Accepted: 3 June 2010 / Published: 9 June 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ferromagnetic Semiconductors)
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We present a comprehensive study on Ti-doped ZnO thin films using X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Ti K edge XAFS spectra were measured to study the electronic and chemical properties of Ti ions in the thin films grown under different ambient atmospheres. A strong dependence of Ti speciation, composition, and local structures upon the ambient conditions was observed. The XAFS results suggest a major tetrahedral coordination and a 4+ valence state. The sample grown in a mixture of 80% Ar and 20% O2 shows a portion of precipitates with higher coordination. A large distortion was observed by the Ti substitution in the ZnO lattice. Interestingly, the film prepared in 80% Ar, 20% O2 shows the largest saturation magnetic moment of 0.827 ± 0.013 µB/Ti.
Keywords: DMS; XAFS; ZnO; vacancy; Ti DMS; XAFS; ZnO; vacancy; Ti
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Yong, Z.; Liu, T.; Uruga, T.; Tanida, H.; Qi, D.; Rusydi, A.; Wee, A.T.S. Ti-doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared at Different Ambient Conditions: Electronic Structures and Magnetic Properties. Materials 2010, 3, 3642-3653.

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