Materials 2010, 3(11), 4892-4914; doi:10.3390/ma3114892
Article

Transparent Conducting Oxides for Photovoltaics: Manipulation of Fermi Level, Work Function and Energy Band Alignment

Received: 25 September 2010; Accepted: 25 October 2010 / Published: 2 November 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Energy Materials)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Doping limits, band gaps, work functions and energy band alignments of undoped and donor-doped transparent conducting oxides Zn0, In2O3, and SnO2 as accessed by X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/UPS) are summarized and compared. The presented collection provides an extensive data set of technologically relevant electronic properties of photovoltaic transparent electrode materials and illustrates how these relate to the underlying defect chemistry, the dependence of surface dipoles on crystallographic orientation and/or surface termination, and Fermi level pinning.
Keywords: transparent conducting oxides; work function; doping; band alignment; solar cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Klein, A.; Körber, C.; Wachau, A.; Säuberlich, F.; Gassenbauer, Y.; Harvey, S.P.; Proffit, D.E.; Mason, T.O. Transparent Conducting Oxides for Photovoltaics: Manipulation of Fermi Level, Work Function and Energy Band Alignment. Materials 2010, 3, 4892-4914.

AMA Style

Klein A, Körber C, Wachau A, Säuberlich F, Gassenbauer Y, Harvey SP, Proffit DE, Mason TO. Transparent Conducting Oxides for Photovoltaics: Manipulation of Fermi Level, Work Function and Energy Band Alignment. Materials. 2010; 3(11):4892-4914.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Klein, Andreas; Körber, Christoph; Wachau, André; Säuberlich, Frank; Gassenbauer, Yvonne; Harvey, Steven P.; Proffit, Diana E.; Mason, Thomas O. 2010. "Transparent Conducting Oxides for Photovoltaics: Manipulation of Fermi Level, Work Function and Energy Band Alignment." Materials 3, no. 11: 4892-4914.

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