Materials 2009, 2(2), 399-498; doi:10.3390/ma2020399

Calcium Orthophosphates in Nature, Biology and Medicine

Received: 24 February 2009; in revised form: 9 April 2009 / Accepted: 20 April 2009 / Published: 20 April 2009
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. These materials are of the special significance because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and dear antlers) and pathological (i.e. those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. Due to a great chemical similarity with the biological calcified tissues, many calcium orthophosphates possess remarkable biocompatibility and bioactivity. Materials scientists use this property extensively to construct artificial bone grafts that are either entirely made of or only surface-coated with the biologically relevant calcium orthophosphates. For example, self-setting hydraulic cements made of calcium orthophosphates are helpful in bone repair, while titanium substitutes covered by a surface layer of calcium orthophosphates are used for hip joint endoprostheses and as tooth substitutes. Porous scaffolds made of calcium orthophosphates are very promising tools for tissue engineering applications. In addition, technical grade calcium orthophosphates are very popular mineral fertilizers. Thus ere calcium orthophosphates are of great significance for humankind and, in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided.
Keywords: Calcium orthophosphates; antlers; biological apatite; biomaterials; bioceramics; biomimetics; biomineralization; bone grafts; bones; calcified tissues; fluorapatite; hydroxyapatite; materials chemistry; pathological calcification; teeth; tissue engineering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dorozhkin, S.V. Calcium Orthophosphates in Nature, Biology and Medicine. Materials 2009, 2, 399-498.

AMA Style

Dorozhkin SV. Calcium Orthophosphates in Nature, Biology and Medicine. Materials. 2009; 2(2):399-498.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dorozhkin, Sergey V. 2009. "Calcium Orthophosphates in Nature, Biology and Medicine." Materials 2, no. 2: 399-498.

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