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Materials 2018, 11(6), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11061007

Three Dimensional Methodology to Characterize Large Dendritic Equiaxed Grains in Industrial Steel Ingots

1
Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mAss Structures (DAMAS), Université de Lorraine, 57073 Metz, France
2
Department of Metallurgy & Materials Science and Engineering, Institut Jean Lamour, 2 allée André Guinier Campus Artem, 54000 Nancy, France
3
Ascométal CREAS, Avenue de France, BP 70045, 57301 Hagondange, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Alloy Metals for Low-Mass Structures)
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Abstract

The primary phase grain size is a key parameter to understand the formation of the macrosegregation pattern in large steel ingots. Most of the characterization techniques use two-dimensional measurements. In this paper, a characterization method has been developed for equiaxed dendritic grains in industrial steel castings. A total of 383 contours were drawn two-dimensionally on twelve 6.6 cm2slices. A three-dimensional reconstruction method is performed to obtain 171 three-dimensional grains. Data regarding the size, shape and orientation of equiaxed grains is presented and thereby shows that equiaxed grains are centimeter-scale complex objects. They appear to be a poly-dispersed collection of non-isotropic objects possessing preferential orientations. In addition, the volumetric grain number density is 2.2×107 grains/m3, which compares to the 0.5×107 grains/m3 that can be obtained with estimation from 2D measurements. The 2.2×107 grains/m3 value is ten-times smaller than that previously used in the literature to simulate the macrosegregation profile in the same 6.2 ton ingot. View Full-Text
Keywords: industrial ingot; steel; dendritic grain size industrial ingot; steel; dendritic grain size
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Gennesson, M.; Zollinger, J.; Daloz, D.; Rouat, B.; Demurger, J.; Combeau, H. Three Dimensional Methodology to Characterize Large Dendritic Equiaxed Grains in Industrial Steel Ingots. Materials 2018, 11, 1007.

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