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Materials 2018, 11(5), 816; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050816

Evolution of Grain Interfaces in Annealed Duplex Stainless Steel after Parallel Cross Rolling and Direct Rolling

1
Institute for Advanced Manufacturing, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China
3
Center of Testing and Analysis, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China
4
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Recrystallization and Microstructural Evolution in Alloys)
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Abstract

Changes in various grain interfaces, including the grain boundary and phase boundary, are a strong indication of microstructural changes, particularly ultra-fined grains achieved by large strain deformation and subsequent annealing. After direct rolling and cross rolling with the same strain of ε = 2, the distributions of the interfaces in annealed UNS S32304 duplex stainless steel were investigated using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in this study. The ferrite experienced continued recovery, and a high density of low-angle grain boundaries (LAGBs) was produced. The percentage and number of twin boundaries (TBs) and LAGBs varied within the austenite. TBs were frequently found within austenite, showing a deviation from the Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) orientation relationship (OR) with ferrite matrix. However, LAGBs usually occur in austenite, with the K-S OR in the ferrite matrix. LAGBs were prevalent in the precipitated austenite grains, and therefore a strong texture was introduced in the cross-rolled and annealed samples, in which the precipitated austenite readily maintained the K-S OR in the ferrite matrix. By contrast, more TBs and a less robust texture were found in the precipitated austenite in direct-rolled and annealed samples, deviating from the K-S OR.
Keywords: grain interface; twin boundary; cross rolling; duplex stainless steel grain interface; twin boundary; cross rolling; duplex stainless steel
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, M.; Li, H.; Tian, Y.; Guo, H.; Fang, X.; Guo, Y. Evolution of Grain Interfaces in Annealed Duplex Stainless Steel after Parallel Cross Rolling and Direct Rolling. Materials 2018, 11, 816.

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