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Materials 2018, 11(1), 23; doi:10.3390/ma11010023

3D Printed Structures Filled with Carbon Fibers and Functionalized with Mesenchymal Stem Cell Conditioned Media as In Vitro Cell Niches for Promoting Chondrogenesis

1
Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco-Madrid, Spain
2
Product Development Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), C/ José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2017 / Revised: 3 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 24 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scaffold Materials for Tissue Engineering)
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Abstract

In this study, we present a novel approach towards the straightforward, rapid, and low-cost development of biomimetic composite scaffolds for tissue engineering strategies. The system is based on the additive manufacture of a computer-designed lattice structure or framework, into which carbon fibers are subsequently knitted or incorporated. The 3D-printed lattice structure acts as support and the knitted carbon fibers perform as driving elements for promoting cell colonization of the three-dimensional construct. A human mesenchymal stem cell (h-MSC) conditioned medium (CM) is also used for improving the scaffold’s response and promoting cell adhesion, proliferation, and viability. Cell culture results—in which scaffolds become buried in collagen type II—provide relevant information regarding the viability of the composite scaffolds used and the prospective applications of the proposed approach. In fact, the advanced composite scaffold developed, together with the conditioned medium functionalization, constitutes a biomimetic stem cell niche with clear potential, not just for tendon and ligament repair, but also for cartilage and endochondral bone formation and regeneration strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: tissue engineering; scaffolds for tissue repair; stem cell niches; cell culture niches; stem cell conditioned medium; carbon fiber; rapid prototyping; additive manufacture; computer-aided design & engineering tissue engineering; scaffolds for tissue repair; stem cell niches; cell culture niches; stem cell conditioned medium; carbon fiber; rapid prototyping; additive manufacture; computer-aided design & engineering
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García-Ruíz, J.P.; Díaz Lantada, A. 3D Printed Structures Filled with Carbon Fibers and Functionalized with Mesenchymal Stem Cell Conditioned Media as In Vitro Cell Niches for Promoting Chondrogenesis. Materials 2018, 11, 23.

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