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Materials 2017, 10(9), 1030; doi:10.3390/ma10091030

Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanoparticles for Oxygen Reduction Prepared via a Crushing Method Involving a High Shear Mixer

1,†
,
1,†
,
1,†
,
1
,
1,2,3
,
1
,
1
and
1,2,3,*
1
Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Chemical Engineering of Xinjiang Bingtuan, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003, China
2
Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Shihezi 832003, China
3
Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Phytomedicine Resources of Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832002, China
Authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Activated Carbons)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2344 KB, uploaded 5 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

The disposal of agricultural wastes such as fresh banana peels (BPs) is an environmental issue. In this work, fresh BPs were successfully transformed into nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles (N-CNPs) by using a high shear mixer facilitated crushing method (HSM-FCM) followed by carbonization under Ar atmosphere. Ammonia-activated N-CNPs (N-CNPs-NH3) were prepared via subsequent ammonia activation treatments at a high temperature. The as-prepared N-CNPs and N-CNPs-NH3 materials both exhibited high surface areas (above 700 m2/g) and mean particle size of 50 nm. N-CNPs-NH3 showed a relatively higher content of pyridinic and graphitic N compared to N-CNPs. In alkaline media, N-CNPs-NH3 showed superior performances as an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst (E0 = −0.033 V, J = 2.4 mA/cm2) compared to N-CNPs (E0 = 0.07 V, J = 1.8 mA/cm2). In addition, N-CNPs-NH3 showed greater oxygen reduction stability and superior methanol crossover avoidance than a conventional Pt/C catalyst. This study provides a novel, simple, and scalable approach to valorize biomass wastes by synthesizing highly efficient electrochemical ORR catalysts. View Full-Text
Keywords: agricultural wastes; porous carbon nanoparticles; fresh banana peel; high shear mixer; oxygen reduction; energy conversion agricultural wastes; porous carbon nanoparticles; fresh banana peel; high shear mixer; oxygen reduction; energy conversion
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Shi, L.; Wu, T.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Wang, G.; Zhang, J.; Dai, B.; Yu, F. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanoparticles for Oxygen Reduction Prepared via a Crushing Method Involving a High Shear Mixer. Materials 2017, 10, 1030.

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