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Materials 2017, 10(7), 744; doi:10.3390/ma10070744

Raman and Photoemission Spectroscopic Analyses of Explanted Biolox® Delta Femoral Heads Showing Metal Transfer

1
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Neuromotorie, Università di Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8/2, 40126 Bologna, Italy
2
Laboratorio di Tecnologia Medica, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano, 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 25 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract

Biolox® delta has been widely used in joint replacements thanks to its high strength and wear resistance. In this study, eleven Biolox® delta femoral head retrievals affected by metal transfer (MT) were analysed by Raman spectroscopy to estimate the tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia phase transformation, whose occurrence may compromise ceramic chemical stability and mechanical strength. The residual stress state was evaluated by both Raman and photoemission spectroscopy. Vm monoclinic zirconia contents were higher near the centre of the articulating surface and in the MT area than in the border control area of the retrievals. In only one retrieval, stress related to MT appeared a more severe condition, able to induce zirconia phase transformation; for all the others, stresses related to loading in the central region and related to MT, were conducive to a zirconia phase transformation of nearly the same extent. Vm depth profiling analyses showed that the transformation involved different thicknesses in different samples. Raman data allowed for the investigation of the mechanism of zirconia phase transformation and confirmed that the growth stage was absent and the nucleation stage was not occurring as freely as it would in unconstrained zirconia. View Full-Text
Keywords: Biolox® delta; retrievals; hip joint prostheses; femoral heads; wear; metal transfer; zirconia phase transformation; Raman spectroscopy; photoemission spectroscopy Biolox® delta; retrievals; hip joint prostheses; femoral heads; wear; metal transfer; zirconia phase transformation; Raman spectroscopy; photoemission spectroscopy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Taddei, P.; Pavoni, E.; Affatato, S. Raman and Photoemission Spectroscopic Analyses of Explanted Biolox® Delta Femoral Heads Showing Metal Transfer. Materials 2017, 10, 744.

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