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Materials 2017, 10(7), 736; doi:10.3390/ma10070736

Piezoelectric Ceramics of the (1 − x)Bi0.50Na0.50TiO3xBa0.90Ca0.10TiO3 Lead-Free Solid Solution: Chemical Shift of the Morphotropic Phase Boundary, a Case Study for x = 0.06

1
Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, A.P. 70-360, México D.F. 04510, Mexico
2
Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
3
Departamento Química Inorgánica I, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
4
CEMDATIC, ETSIST Campus Sur, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Nikola Tesla s/n. 28031 Madrid, Spain
5
Laboratorio de Cristalofísica y Materiales Naturales, Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito de la Investigación Científica S/N, México D.F. 04510, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Abstract

Research and development of lead-free piezoelectric materials are still the hottest topics in the field of piezoelectricity. One of the most promising lead-free family of compounds to replace lead zirconate–titanate for actuators is that of Bi0.50Na0.50TiO3 (BNT) based solid solutions. The pseudo-binary (1 − x)Bi0.50Na0.50TiO3xBa1 − yCayTiO3 system has been proposed for high temperature capacitors and not yet fully explored as piezoelectric material. In this work, the solid solution with x = 0.06 and y = 0.10 was obtained by two different synthesis routes: solid state and Pechini, aiming at using reduced temperatures, both in synthesis (<800 °C) and sintering (<1150 °C), while maintaining appropriated piezoelectric performance. Crystal structure, ceramic grain size, and morphology depend on the synthesis route and were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, together with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of processing and ceramic microstructure on the structural, dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties were discussed in terms of a shift of the Morphotropic Phase Boundary, chemically induced by the synthesis route. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bismuth sodium titanate; Barium titanate; solid state synthesis; Pechini synthesis route; Morphotropic Phase Boundary; lead-free; piezoelectricity; ceramics Bismuth sodium titanate; Barium titanate; solid state synthesis; Pechini synthesis route; Morphotropic Phase Boundary; lead-free; piezoelectricity; ceramics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Vivar-Ocampo, R.; Pardo, L.; Ávila, D.; Morán, E.; González, A.M.; Bucio, L.; Villafuerte-Castrejón, M.-E. Piezoelectric Ceramics of the (1 − x)Bi0.50Na0.50TiO3xBa0.90Ca0.10TiO3 Lead-Free Solid Solution: Chemical Shift of the Morphotropic Phase Boundary, a Case Study for x = 0.06. Materials 2017, 10, 736.

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