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Materials 2017, 10(7), 714; doi:10.3390/ma10070714

Estimation of Articular Cartilage Surface Roughness Using Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix of Laser Speckle Image

1
Department of Engineering Applications of Laser, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University, Giza Governorate 12613, Egypt
2
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ain-Shams University, Cairo Governorate 11566, Egypt
3
Department of Laser Sciences and Interactions, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University, Giza Governorate 12613, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 June 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser in Nanotechnology and Biomedical Applications)
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Abstract

The application of He-Ne laser technologies for description of articular cartilage degeneration, one of the most common diseases worldwide, is an innovative usage of these technologies used primarily in material engineering. Plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging are insufficient to allow the early assessment of the disease. As surface roughness of articular cartilage is an important indicator of articular cartilage degeneration progress, a safe and noncontact technique based on laser speckle image to estimate the surface roughness is provided. This speckle image from the articular cartilage surface, when illuminated by laser beam, gives very important information about the physical properties of the surface. An experimental setup using a low power He-Ne laser and a high-resolution digital camera was implemented to obtain speckle images of ten bovine articular cartilage specimens prepared for different average roughness values. Texture analysis method based on gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) analyzed on the captured speckle images is used to characterize the surface roughness of the specimens depending on the computation of Haralick’s texture features. In conclusion, this promising method can accurately estimate the surface roughness of articular cartilage even for early signs of degeneration. The method is effective for estimation of average surface roughness values ranging from 0.09 µm to 2.51 µm with an accuracy of 0.03 µm. View Full-Text
Keywords: articular cartilage; surface roughness; laser speckle; co-occurrence matrix; Haralick’s texture feature articular cartilage; surface roughness; laser speckle; co-occurrence matrix; Haralick’s texture feature
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Youssef, D.; El-Ghandoor, H.; Kandel, H.; El-Azab, J.; Hassab-Elnaby, S. Estimation of Articular Cartilage Surface Roughness Using Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix of Laser Speckle Image. Materials 2017, 10, 714.

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