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Materials 2017, 10(6), 584; doi:10.3390/ma10060584

A Constitutive Model for Soft Clays Incorporating Elastic and Plastic Cross-Anisotropy

1
Department of Ground Engineering and Materials Science, University of Cantabria, Avda. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Spain
2
Computational Geomechanics Division, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), P.O. Box 3930, Ullevål Stadion, 0806 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Miguel Cervera and Ingo Dierking
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 17 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Mechanics of Cohesive-Frictional Materials)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2343 KB, uploaded 26 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Natural clays exhibit a significant degree of anisotropy in their fabric, which initially is derived from the shape of the clay platelets, deposition process and one-dimensional consolidation. Various authors have proposed anisotropic elastoplastic models involving an inclined yield surface to reproduce anisotropic behavior of plastic nature. This paper presents a novel constitutive model for soft structured clays that includes anisotropic behavior both of elastic and plastic nature. The new model incorporates stress-dependent cross-anisotropic elastic behavior within the yield surface using three independent elastic parameters because natural clays exhibit cross-anisotropic (or transversely isotropic) behavior after deposition and consolidation. Thus, the model only incorporates an additional variable with a clear physical meaning, namely the ratio between horizontal and vertical stiffnesses, which can be analytically obtained from conventional laboratory tests. The model does not consider evolution of elastic anisotropy, but laboratory results show that large strains are necessary to cause noticeable changes in elastic anisotropic behavior. The model is able to capture initial non-vertical effective stress paths for undrained triaxial tests and to predict deviatoric strains during isotropic loading or unloading. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural structured clays; cross-anisotropy; constitutive model; anisotropy evolution; stress-dependent stiffness; triaxial tests natural structured clays; cross-anisotropy; constitutive model; anisotropy evolution; stress-dependent stiffness; triaxial tests
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Castro, J.; Sivasithamparam, N. A Constitutive Model for Soft Clays Incorporating Elastic and Plastic Cross-Anisotropy. Materials 2017, 10, 584.

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