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Materials 2017, 10(4), 380; doi:10.3390/ma10040380

Investigation of the Defect Structure of Congruent and Fe-Doped LiNbO3 Powders Synthesized by the Combustion Method

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
Department of Electronic Engineering, Kao Yuan University, No. 1821, Jhongshan Road, Lujhu District, Kaohsiung 82151, Taiwan
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, No.1, Sec. 1, Syuecheng Road, Dashu District, Kaohsiung 84001, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tilo Söhnel
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 30 March 2017 / Published: 2 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Solid State and Materials Chemistry)
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Fe-doped LiNbO3 synthesized by the combustion method to seek new multiferroic materials exhibits room-temperature ferromagnetism, as reported in our previous work [1]. In this work, the defect structure of congruent and Fe-doped LiNbO3 (0.57–3.3 mol %) powders was investigated in detail by several methods. The molar ratio of [Li]/([Li]+[Nb]) was determined by the Curie temperature (Tc) via DSC. Two peaks of Tc were observed due to phase splitting [2], and the phase at lower Tc disappears as the Fe doping concentration increases. The coexistence of two different oxidation states of Fe ions in LiNbO3 was probed by XPS and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The Raman spectra exhibit displacements along the c axis of Li and Nb ions, and a deformation of the NbO6 framework owing to Fe doping. Several doping models were applied in the Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction collected by synchrotron radiation. The fitting by the Nb vacancy model leads to an improbably distorted structure of congruent LiNbO3. In Fe-doped LiNbO3, we conjecture that Li and Nb vacancies coexist in the lattice structure; Fe+2/Fe+3 ions are substituted for Li ions at the regular Li site and may push the anti-site NbLi ion back to the regular Nb site. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fe-doped lithium niobate; combustion method; defect structure; Rietveld refinement Fe-doped lithium niobate; combustion method; defect structure; Rietveld refinement

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.-Y.; Chen, H.-L.; Chen, G.-J.; Kuo, C.-L.; Hsieh, P.-H.; Hwang, W.-S. Investigation of the Defect Structure of Congruent and Fe-Doped LiNbO3 Powders Synthesized by the Combustion Method. Materials 2017, 10, 380.

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