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Materials 2017, 10(10), 1117; doi:10.3390/ma10101117

Predictive Simulation of Process Windows for Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing: Influence of the Powder Bulk Density

1
Chair of Materials Science and Engineering for Metals (WTM), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Martensstr. 5, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany
2
Joint Institute of Advanced Materials and Processes (ZMP), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Dr.-Mack-Str. 81, D-90762 Fürth, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 19 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives on Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials)
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Abstract

The resulting properties of parts fabricated by powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes are determined by their porosity, local composition, and microstructure. The objective of this work is to examine the influence of the stochastic powder bed on the process window for dense parts by means of numerical simulation. The investigations demonstrate the unique capability of simulating macroscopic domains in the range of millimeters with a mesoscopic approach, which resolves the powder bed and the hydrodynamics of the melt pool. A simulated process window reveals the influence of the stochastic powder layer. The numerical results are verified with an experimental process window for selective electron beam-melted Ti-6Al-4V. Furthermore, the influence of the powder bulk density is investigated numerically. The simulations predict an increase in porosity and surface roughness for samples produced with lower powder bulk densities. Due to its higher probability for unfavorable powder arrangements, the process stability is also decreased. This shrinks the actual parameter range in a process window for producing dense parts. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive manufacturing; selective electron beam melting; numerical simulation; Ti-6Al-4V; porosity; powder density; Lattice Boltzmann Method; defect statistics; process map additive manufacturing; selective electron beam melting; numerical simulation; Ti-6Al-4V; porosity; powder density; Lattice Boltzmann Method; defect statistics; process map
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rausch, A.M.; Küng, V.E.; Pobel, C.; Markl, M.; Körner, C. Predictive Simulation of Process Windows for Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing: Influence of the Powder Bulk Density. Materials 2017, 10, 1117.

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