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Energies 2016, 9(9), 736; doi:10.3390/en9090736

Does Your Domestic Photovoltaic Energy System Survive Grid Outages?

1
Design and Analysis of Communication Systems, University of Twente, 7500AE Enschede, The Netherlands
2
University of Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giovanni Pau
Received: 30 April 2016 / Revised: 30 August 2016 / Accepted: 31 August 2016 / Published: 9 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decentralized Management of Energy Streams in Smart Grids)
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Abstract

Domestic renewable energy systems, including photovoltaic energy generation, as well as local storage, are becoming increasingly popular and economically feasible, but do come with a wide range of options. Hence, it can be difficult to match their specification to specific customer’s needs. Next to the usage-specific demand profiles and location-specific production profiles, local energy storage through the use of batteries is becoming increasingly important, since it allows one to balance variations in production and demand, either locally or via the grid. Moreover, local storage can also help to ensure a continuous energy supply in the presence of grid outages, at least for a while. Hybrid Petri net (HPN) models allow one to analyze the effect of different battery management strategies on the continuity of such energy systems in the case of grid outages. The current paper focuses on one of these strategies, the so-called smart strategy, that reserves a certain percentage of the battery capacity to be only used in case of grid outages. Additionally, we introduce a new strategy that makes better use of the reserved backup capacity, by reducing the demand in the presence of a grid outage through a prioritization mechanism. This new strategy, called power-save, only allows the essential (high-priority) demand to draw from the battery during power outages. We show that this new strategy outperforms previously-proposed strategies through a careful analysis of a number of scenarios and for a selection of survivability measures, such as minimum survivability per day, number of survivable hours per day, minimum survivability per year and various survivability quantiles. View Full-Text
Keywords: survivability; domestic energy systems; smart grids; batteries; energy management system; stochastic models, hybrid Petri nets survivability; domestic energy systems; smart grids; batteries; energy management system; stochastic models, hybrid Petri nets
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jongerden, M.R.; Hüls, J.; Remke, A.; Haverkort, B.R. Does Your Domestic Photovoltaic Energy System Survive Grid Outages? Energies 2016, 9, 736.

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