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Energies 2016, 9(9), 665; doi:10.3390/en9090665

A Statistical Framework for Automatic Leakage Detection in Smart Water and Gas Grids

Department of Information Engineering, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche 1, 60131 Ancona, Italy
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Academic Editor: Neville R. Watson
Received: 7 July 2016 / Revised: 9 August 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 23 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Smart Grid)
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Abstract

In the last few years, due to the technological improvement of advanced metering infrastructures, water and natural gas grids can be regarded as smart-grids, similarly to power ones. However, considering the number of studies related to the application of computational intelligence to distribution grids, the gap between power grids and water/gas grids is notably wide. For this purpose, in this paper, a framework for leakage identification is presented. The framework is composed of three sections aimed at the extraction and the selection of features and at the detection of leakages. A variation of the Sequential Feature Selection (SFS) algorithm is used to select the best performing features within a set, including, also, innovative temporal ones. The leakage identification is based on novelty detection and exploits the characterization of a normality model. Three statistical approaches, The Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and One-Class Support Vector Machine (OC-SVM), are adopted, under a comparative perspective. Both residential and office building environments are investigated by means of two datasets. One is the Almanac of Minutely Power dataset (AMPds), and it provides water and gas data consumption at 1, 10 and 30 min of time resolution; the other is the Department of International Development (DFID) dataset, and it provides water and gas data consumption at 30 min of time resolution. The achieved performance, computed by means of the Area Under the Curve (AUC), reaches 90 % in the office building case study, thus confirming the suitability of the proposed approach for applications in smart water and gas grids. View Full-Text
Keywords: novelty detection; automatic leakage detection; Gaussian mixture model; hidden Markov models; one-class support vector machine; smart water; gas grids novelty detection; automatic leakage detection; Gaussian mixture model; hidden Markov models; one-class support vector machine; smart water; gas grids
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fagiani, M.; Squartini, S.; Gabrielli, L.; Severini, M.; Piazza, F. A Statistical Framework for Automatic Leakage Detection in Smart Water and Gas Grids. Energies 2016, 9, 665.

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