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Energies 2016, 9(7), 552; doi:10.3390/en9070552

Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

1
Department of Theoretical Computer Science and Mathematical Logic, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Malostranské Náměstí 25, Praha 2, Prague 11800, Czech Republic
2
Department of Computer Science, Mathematics and Electrical Engineering, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, Enschede 7500 AE, The Netherlands
3
Research Chair Renewable Energy, Saxion University of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 70.000, Enschede 7500 KB, The Netherlands
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: G.J.M. (Gerard) Smit
Received: 4 May 2016 / Revised: 18 June 2016 / Accepted: 5 July 2016 / Published: 15 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decentralized Management of Energy Streams in Smart Grids)
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Abstract

In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP). The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. Electricity for the heat pumps is generated by a central CHP unit, which also provides thermal energy to a district heating system. The paper reviews recent smart grid control approaches for central and distributed levels. An online algorithm is described based on the earliest deadline first theory that can be used on the aggregator level to control the CHP and to give signals to the heat pump controllers if they should start or should wait. The central controller requires only a limited amount of privacy-insensitive information from the heat pump controllers about their deadlines, which the heat pump controllers calculate for themselves by model predictions. In this way, a robust heat pump and CHP control is obtained, which is able to minimize energy demand and results in the desired thermal comfort for the households. The simulations demonstrate fast computation times due to minor computational and communication overheads. View Full-Text
Keywords: model predictive control; optimization; smart grids, smart control; renewable energy integration; domestic hot water; floor heating; thermal storage; heat pump control; combined heat and power control model predictive control; optimization; smart grids, smart control; renewable energy integration; domestic hot water; floor heating; thermal storage; heat pump control; combined heat and power control
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Fink, J.; van Leeuwen, R.P. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source. Energies 2016, 9, 552.

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