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Energies 2016, 9(5), 360; doi:10.3390/en9050360

Lithium Ion Batteries—Development of Advanced Electrical Equivalent Circuit Models for Nickel Manganese Cobalt Lithium-Ion

Department Mobility, Logistics and Automotive Technology Research Centre, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050, Belgium
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Academic Editor: Michael Gerard Pecht
Received: 17 February 2016 / Revised: 21 April 2016 / Accepted: 27 April 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016

Abstract

In this paper, advanced equivalent circuit models (ECMs) were developed to model large format and high energy nickel manganese cobalt (NMC) lithium-ion 20 Ah battery cells. Different temperatures conditions, cell characterization test (Normal and Advanced Tests), ECM topologies (1st and 2nd Order Thévenin model), state of charge (SoC) estimation techniques (Coulomb counting and extended Kalman filtering) and validation profiles (dynamic discharge pulse test (DDPT) and world harmonized light vehicle profiles) have been incorporated in the analysis. A concise state-of-the-art of different lithium-ion battery models existing in the academia and industry is presented providing information about model classification and information about electrical models. Moreover, an overview of the different steps and information needed to be able to create an ECM model is provided. A comparison between begin of life (BoL) and aged (95%, 90% state of health) ECM parameters (internal resistance (Ro), polarization resistance (Rp), activation resistance (Rp2) and time constants (τ) is presented. By comparing the BoL to the aged parameters an overview of the behavior of the parameters is introduced and provides the appropriate platform for future research in electrical modeling of battery cells covering the ageing aspect. Based on the BoL parameters 1st and 2nd order models were developed for a range of temperatures (15 °C, 25 °C, 35 °C, 45 °C). The highest impact to the accuracy of the model (validation results) is the temperature condition that the model was developed. The 1st and 2nd order Thévenin models and the change from normal to advanced characterization datasets, while they affect the accuracy of the model they mostly help in dealing with high and low SoC linearity problems. The 2nd order Thévenin model with advanced characterization parameters and extended Kalman filtering SoC estimation technique is the most efficient and dynamically correct ECM model developed. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium ion; nickel manganese cobalt (NMC); equivalent circuit model (ECM); validation profile; modelling; begin of life (BoL) parameters; cell characterization; dynamic discharge pulse test (DDPT); worldwide harmonized light vehicle test procedure (WLTC) lithium ion; nickel manganese cobalt (NMC); equivalent circuit model (ECM); validation profile; modelling; begin of life (BoL) parameters; cell characterization; dynamic discharge pulse test (DDPT); worldwide harmonized light vehicle test procedure (WLTC)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nikolian, A.; Firouz, Y.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Timmermans, J.-M.; Omar, N.; van den Bossche, P.; van Mierlo, J. Lithium Ion Batteries—Development of Advanced Electrical Equivalent Circuit Models for Nickel Manganese Cobalt Lithium-Ion. Energies 2016, 9, 360.

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