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Energies 2016, 9(12), 1081; doi:10.3390/en9121081

Artificial Neural Network Model for Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer Flooding in Viscous Oil Reservoirs: Generation and Application

Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751, Korea
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Academic Editor: Alireza Bahadori
Received: 20 October 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
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Abstract

Chemical flooding has been widely utilized to recover a large portion of the oil remaining in light and viscous oil reservoirs after the primary and secondary production processes. As core-flood tests and reservoir simulations take time to accurately estimate the recovery performances as well as analyzing the feasibility of an injection project, it is necessary to find a powerful tool to quickly predict the results with a level of acceptable accuracy. An approach involving the use of an artificial neural network to generate a representative model for estimating the alkali-surfactant-polymer flooding performance and evaluating the economic feasibility of viscous oil reservoirs from simulation is proposed in this study. A typical chemical flooding project was referenced for this numerical study. A number of simulations have been made for training on the basis of a base case from the design of 13 parameters. After training, the network scheme generated from a ratio data set of 50%-20%-30% corresponding to the number of samples used for training-validation-testing was selected for estimation with the total coefficient of determination of 0.986 and a root mean square error of 1.63%. In terms of model application, the chemical concentration and injection strategy were optimized to maximize the net present value (NPV) of the project at a specific oil price from the just created ANN model. To evaluate the feasibility of the project comprehensively in terms of market variations, a range of oil prices from 30 $/bbl to 60 $/bbl referenced from a real market situation was considered in conjunction with its probability following a statistical distribution on the NPV computation. Feasibility analysis of the optimal chemical injection scheme revealed a variation of profit from 0.42 $MM to 1.0 $MM, corresponding to the changes in oil price. In particular, at the highest possible oil prices, the project can earn approximately 0.61 $MM to 0.87 $MM for a quarter five-spot scale. Basically, the ANN model generated by this work can be flexibly applied in different economic conditions and extended to a larger reservoir scale for similar chemical flooding projects that demand a quick prediction rather than a simulation process. View Full-Text
Keywords: optimization; artificial neural network; chemical flooding; net present value; enhanced oil recovery optimization; artificial neural network; chemical flooding; net present value; enhanced oil recovery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Le Van, S.; Chon, B.H. Artificial Neural Network Model for Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer Flooding in Viscous Oil Reservoirs: Generation and Application. Energies 2016, 9, 1081.

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