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Energies 2016, 9(11), 909; doi:10.3390/en9110909

Multi-Objective Distribution Network Expansion Incorporating Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

School of Electrical Engineering and Information, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chunhua Liu
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 21 October 2016 / Accepted: 27 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Smart Grid)
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The paper develops a multi-objective planning framework for distribution network expansion with electric vehicle charging stations. Charging loads are modeled in the first place, and then integrated into the optimal distribution network expansion planning. The formulation is extended from the single objective of the economic cost minimization into three objectives with the additional maximization of the charging station utilization, and maximization of the reliability level. Compared with the existing models, it captures the interactive impacts between charging infrastructures planning and distribution network planning from the aspects of economy, utilization, and reliability. A multi-stage search strategy is designed to solve the multi-objective problem. The models and the strategy are demonstrated by the test case. The results show that the proposed planning framework can make a trade-off among the three objectives, and offer a perspective to effectively integrate the network constraints from both the transportation network and distribution network. View Full-Text
Keywords: charging station; distribution network expansion planning; multi-objectives; multi-stage search strategy; traffic flow charging station; distribution network expansion planning; multi-objectives; multi-stage search strategy; traffic flow

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Xiang, Y.; Yang, W.; Liu, J.; Li, F. Multi-Objective Distribution Network Expansion Incorporating Electric Vehicle Charging Stations. Energies 2016, 9, 909.

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