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Energies 2016, 9(11), 903; doi:10.3390/en9110903

Using CPE Function to Size Capacitor Storage for Electric Vehicles and Quantifying Battery Degradation during Different Driving Cycles

1
State Key Laboratory of Automotive Simulation and Control, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China
2
Energy Technologies Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94710, USA
3
Engineering Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
4
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Izumi Taniguchi
Received: 27 August 2016 / Revised: 1 October 2016 / Accepted: 24 October 2016 / Published: 2 November 2016

Abstract

Range anxiety and battery cycle life are two major factors which restrict the development of electric vehicles. Battery degradation can be reduced by adding supercapacitors to create a Hybrid Energy Storage System. This paper proposes a systematic approach to configure the hybrid energy storage system and quantifies the battery degradation for electric vehicles when using supercapacitors. A continuous power-energy function is proposed to establish supercapacitor size based on national household travel survey statistics. By analyzing continuous driving action in standard driving cycles and special driving phases (start up and acceleration), the supercapacitor size is calculated to provide a compromise between the capacitor size and battery degradation. Estimating the battery degradation after 10 years, the battery capacity loss value decreases 17.55% and 21.6%, respectively, under the urban dynamometer driving schedule and the US06. Furthermore, the battery lifespan of the continuous power-energy configured system is prolonged 28.62% and 31.39%, respectively, compared with the battery alone system. View Full-Text
Keywords: battery; super-capacitor; electric vehicle; hybrid energy storage system; continuous power-energy battery; super-capacitor; electric vehicle; hybrid energy storage system; continuous power-energy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, C.; Min, H.; Yu, Y.; Wang, D.; Luke, J.; Opila, D.; Saxena, S. Using CPE Function to Size Capacitor Storage for Electric Vehicles and Quantifying Battery Degradation during Different Driving Cycles. Energies 2016, 9, 903.

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