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Energies 2016, 9(10), 834; doi:10.3390/en9100834

Smart Grid Cost-Emission Unit Commitment via Co-Evolutionary Agents

1
School of Urban Rail Transportation, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, China
2
College of Automation, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunication, Nanjing 210023, China
3
College of information science and engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paras Mandal
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 10 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Microgrids: Developing the Intelligent Power Grid of Tomorrow)
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Abstract

In this paper, the uncertainty of wind, solar and load; smart charging and discharging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) to and from various energy sources; and the coordination of wind, solar power, PHEVs and cost-emission are considered in the smart grid unit commitment (UC). First, a multi-scenario simulation is used in which a set of valid scenarios is considered for the uncertainties of wind and solar energy sources and load. Then the UC problem for the set of scenarios is decomposed into the optimization of interactive agents by multi-agent technology. Agents’ action is represented by a genetic algorithm with adaptive crossover and mutation operators. The adaptive co-evolution of agents is reached by adaptive cooperative multipliers. Finally, simulation is implemented on an example of a power system containing thermal units, a wind farm, solar power plants and PHEVs. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Thermal units, wind, solar power and PHEVs are mutually complementarily by the adaptive cooperative mechanism. The adaptive multipliers’ updating strategy can save more computational time and further improve the efficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-agent technology; co-evolution agents; cost-emission unit commitment; plug-in hybrid electric vehicles; renewable energy multi-agent technology; co-evolution agents; cost-emission unit commitment; plug-in hybrid electric vehicles; renewable energy
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Zhang, X.; Xie, J.; Zhu, Z.; Zheng, J.; Qiang, H.; Rong, H. Smart Grid Cost-Emission Unit Commitment via Co-Evolutionary Agents. Energies 2016, 9, 834.

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