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Energies 2016, 9(10), 762; doi:10.3390/en9100762

Energy-Efficient Speed Profile Approximation: An Optimal Switching Region-Based Approach with Adaptive Resolution

1,2
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1,3,* , 4
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1,3
and
2,5
1
State Key Laboratory of Rail Traffic Control and Safety, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
2
School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi, China
3
Beijing Engineering Research Center of Urban Traffic Information Intelligent Sensing and Service Technologies, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
4
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou 215123, Jiangsu, China
5
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3G8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jihong Wang
Received: 31 July 2016 / Revised: 3 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016

Abstract

Speed profile optimization plays an important role in optimal train control. Considering the characteristics of an electrical locomotive with regenerative braking, this paper proposes a new algorithm for target speed profile approximation. This paper makes the following three contributions: First, it proves that under a certain calculation precision, there is an optimal coast-brake switching region—not just a point where the train should be switched from coasting mode to braking mode. This is very useful in engineering applications. Second, the paper analyzes the influence of regenerative braking on the optimal coast-brake switching region and proposes an approximate linear relationship between the optimal switching region and the regeneration efficiency. Third, the paper presents an average speed equivalent algorithm for local speed profile optimization in steep sections. In addition, this paper simplifies the proof of the optimality of smooth running on a non-steep track in two steps. The effects on energy consumption from two important factors (optimal coast and running time) are systematically analyzed. Extensive simulations verify these points of view and demonstrate that the proposed approximation approach is computationally efficient and achieves sufficient engineering accuracy. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy consumption; speed profile approximation; adaptive resolution; simulation study energy consumption; speed profile approximation; adaptive resolution; simulation study
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Yang, J.; Jia, L.; Lu, S.; Fu, Y.; Ge, J. Energy-Efficient Speed Profile Approximation: An Optimal Switching Region-Based Approach with Adaptive Resolution. Energies 2016, 9, 762.

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