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Energies 2016, 9(1), 52; doi:10.3390/en9010052

Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) Lithium-Ion 18,650 Battery Cells

1
Warwick Manufacturing Group (WMG), University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
2
Jaguar Land Rover, Banbury Road, Warwick, Coventry CV35 0XJ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: K. T. Chau
Received: 17 November 2015 / Revised: 21 December 2015 / Accepted: 12 January 2016 / Published: 19 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Collection)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2799 KB, uploaded 19 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

Electric vehicle (EV) manufacturers are employing cylindrical format cells in the construction of the vehicles’ battery systems. There is evidence to suggest that both the academic and industrial communities have evaluated cell degradation due to vibration and other forms of mechanical loading. The primary motivation is often the need to satisfy the minimum requirements for safety certification. However, there is limited research that quantifies the durability of the battery and in particular, how the cells will be affected by vibration that is representative of a typical automotive service life (e.g., 100,000 miles). This paper presents a study to determine the durability of commercially available 18,650 cells and quantifies both the electrical and mechanical vibration-induced degradation through measuring changes in cell capacity, impedance and natural frequency. The impact of the cell state of charge (SOC) and in-pack orientation is also evaluated. Experimental results are presented which clearly show that the performance of 18,650 cells can be affected by vibration profiles which are representative of a typical vehicle life. Consequently, it is recommended that EV manufacturers undertake vibration testing, as part of their technology selection and development activities to enhance the quality of EVs and to minimize the risk of in-service warranty claims. View Full-Text
Keywords: vehicle vibration; electric vehicle (EV); Li-ion battery ageing; durability vehicle vibration; electric vehicle (EV); Li-ion battery ageing; durability
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hooper, J.M.; Marco, J.; Chouchelamane, G.H.; Lyness, C. Vibration Durability Testing of Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) Lithium-Ion 18,650 Battery Cells. Energies 2016, 9, 52.

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