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Energies 2015, 8(7), 7326-7343; doi:10.3390/en8077326

Autonomous Household Energy Management Based on a Double Cooperative Game Approach in the Smart Grid

1
School of Electrical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, Jiangsu, China
2
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Smart Grid Technology and Equipment, Nanjing 210096, Jiangsu, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Neville Watson
Received: 28 May 2015 / Revised: 1 July 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 20 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Smart Grid)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [509 KB, uploaded 20 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

Taking advantage of two-way communication infrastructure and bidirectional energy trading between utility companies and customers in the future smart grid (SG), autonomous energy management programs become crucial to the demand-side management (DSM). Most of the existing autonomous energy management schemes are for the scenario with a single utility company or the scenario with one-way energy trading. In this paper, an autonomous household energy management system with multiple utility companies and multiple residential customers is studied by considering the bidirectional energy trading. To minimize the overall costs of both the utility companies and the residential customers, the energy management system is formulated as a double cooperative game. That is, the interaction among the residential users is formulated as a cooperative game, where the players are the customers and the strategies are the daily schedules of their household appliances; and the interaction among the utility companies is also formulated as a cooperative game, where the players are the suppliers and the strategies are the proportions of the daily total energy they provide for the customers. Without loss of generality, the bidirectional energy trading in the double cooperative game is formulated by allowing plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to discharge and sell energy back. Two distributed algorithms will be provided to realize the global optimal performance in terms of minimizing the energy costs, which can be guaranteed at the Nash equilibriums of the formulated cooperative games. Finally, simulation results illustrated that the proposed double cooperative game can benefit both the utility companies and residential users significantly. View Full-Text
Keywords: demand-side management (DSM); energy consumption scheduling (ECS); cooperative game; plug-in electric vehicle (PEV); smart grid (SG) demand-side management (DSM); energy consumption scheduling (ECS); cooperative game; plug-in electric vehicle (PEV); smart grid (SG)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gao, B.; Liu, X.; Zhang, W.; Tang, Y. Autonomous Household Energy Management Based on a Double Cooperative Game Approach in the Smart Grid. Energies 2015, 8, 7326-7343.

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