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Energies 2015, 8(4), 3258-3271; doi:10.3390/en8043258

Life-Cycle Energy and GHG Emissions of Forest Biomass Harvest and Transport for Biofuel Production in Michigan

College of Mechanical and Transportation Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China
Department of Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
School of Business and Economics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas E. Amidon
Received: 1 December 2014 / Revised: 16 March 2015 / Accepted: 15 April 2015 / Published: 22 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioenergy and Biorefining)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [679 KB, uploaded 22 April 2015]   |  


High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions) compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment; energy use; greenhouse gas emissions; ethanol Life Cycle Assessment; energy use; greenhouse gas emissions; ethanol

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, F.; Johnson, D.M.; Wang, J. Life-Cycle Energy and GHG Emissions of Forest Biomass Harvest and Transport for Biofuel Production in Michigan. Energies 2015, 8, 3258-3271.

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