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Energies 2015, 8(3), 2145-2164; doi:10.3390/en8032145

Load Frequency Control in Isolated Micro-Grids with Electrical Vehicles Based on Multivariable Generalized Predictive Theory

1
,
1,2,* , 3,†
,
3,†
,
3,†
and
1,†
1
School of Electrical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
2
Nanning Power Supply Bureau, Guangxi Power Grid Corporation, Nanning 530031, China
3
Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Josep M. Guerrero
Received: 16 October 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2015 / Published: 18 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [533 KB, uploaded 18 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

In power systems, although the inertia energy in power sources can partly cover power unbalances caused by load disturbance or renewable energy fluctuation, it is still hard to maintain the frequency deviation within acceptable ranges. However, with the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technique, electric vehicles (EVs) can act as mobile energy storage units, which could be a solution for load frequency control (LFC) in an isolated grid. In this paper, a LFC model of an isolated micro-grid with EVs, distributed generations and their constraints is developed. In addition, a controller based on multivariable generalized predictive control (MGPC) theory is proposed for LFC in the isolated micro-grid, where EVs and diesel generator (DG) are coordinated to achieve a satisfied performance on load frequency. A benchmark isolated micro-grid with EVs, DG, and wind farm is modeled in the Matlab/Simulink environment to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Simulation results demonstrate that with MGPC, the energy stored in EVs can be managed intelligently according to LFC requirement. This improves the system frequency stability with complex operation situations including the random renewable energy resource and the continuous load disturbances. View Full-Text
Keywords: electric vehicle (EV); vehicle-to-grid (V2G); isolated grid; load frequency control (LFC); multivariable generalized predictive control (MGPC) electric vehicle (EV); vehicle-to-grid (V2G); isolated grid; load frequency control (LFC); multivariable generalized predictive control (MGPC)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, J.; Zeng, Z.; Tang, Y.; Yan, J.; He, H.; Wu, Y. Load Frequency Control in Isolated Micro-Grids with Electrical Vehicles Based on Multivariable Generalized Predictive Theory. Energies 2015, 8, 2145-2164.

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