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Energies 2015, 8(3), 1896-1916; doi:10.3390/en8031896

Hierarchical Load Tracking Control of a Grid-Connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Maximum Electrical Efficiency Operation

1,* , 2,†
and
3,†
1
School of Electrical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
2
Center for Electric Power and Energy, Department of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby 2800, Denmark
3
Wuhan Guoce Science & Technology Co., Ltd., Wuhan 430223, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Josep M. Guerrero
Received: 11 December 2014 / Revised: 12 February 2015 / Accepted: 4 March 2015 / Published: 11 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgrids)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1184 KB, uploaded 17 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

Based on the benchmark solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) dynamic model for power system studies and the analysis of the SOFC operating conditions, the nonlinear programming (NLP) optimization method was used to determine the maximum electrical efficiency of the grid-connected SOFC subject to the constraints of fuel utilization factor, stack temperature and output active power. The optimal operating conditions of the grid-connected SOFC were obtained by solving the NLP problem considering the power consumed by the air compressor. With the optimal operating conditions of the SOFC for the maximum efficiency operation obtained at different active power output levels, a hierarchical load tracking control scheme for the grid-connected SOFC was proposed to realize the maximum electrical efficiency operation with the stack temperature bounded. The hierarchical control scheme consists of a fast active power control and a slower stack temperature control. The active power control was developed by using a decentralized control method. The efficiency of the proposed hierarchical control scheme was demonstrated by case studies using the benchmark SOFC dynamic model. View Full-Text
Keywords: hierarchical control scheme; maximum electrical efficiency; nonlinear programming; solid oxide fuel cell hierarchical control scheme; maximum electrical efficiency; nonlinear programming; solid oxide fuel cell
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Li, Y.; Wu, Q.; Zhu, H. Hierarchical Load Tracking Control of a Grid-Connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Maximum Electrical Efficiency Operation. Energies 2015, 8, 1896-1916.

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