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Energies 2015, 8(11), 12917-12928; doi:10.3390/en81112344

Sodium Tetraethylenepentamine Heptaacetate as Novel Draw Solute for Forward Osmosis—Synthesis, Application and Recovery

Key Laboratory of Material Chemistry for Energy Conversion and Storage, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chuyang Tang
Received: 1 September 2015 / Revised: 2 November 2015 / Accepted: 5 November 2015 / Published: 16 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Osmotic Power)
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Abstract

Osmotic energy, as a sustainable energy source with little environmental impact, has drawn much attention in both academia and industry in recent years. Osmotically driven membrane processes can harvest the osmotic energy and thus have great potential to produce sustainable clean water or electric energy. The draw solution, as an osmotic component, has been more and more explored by scientists in recent years in order to achieve a high osmotic pressure and suitable molecular size. In this work, a novel draw solute—sodium tetraethylenepentamine heptaacetate (STPH)—is synthesized and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Its solution properties are optimized in terms of the solution pH and concentration, and related to the forward osmosis (FO) performance. A water flux of 28.57 LMH and a low solute flux of 0.45 gMH can be generated with 0.5 g/mL STPH draw solution and de-ionized water (DI water) as the feed solution under pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode, which is superior to the FO performance with many other draw solutes reported. Further FO desalination test shows a stable water flux of 9.7 LMH with 0.3 g/mL STPH draw solution and 0.6 M NaCl feed solution. In addition, the draw solution recovery is also investigated. View Full-Text
Keywords: sodium tetraethylenepentamine heptaacetate (STPH); forward osmosis (FO); draw solution; membrane separation sodium tetraethylenepentamine heptaacetate (STPH); forward osmosis (FO); draw solution; membrane separation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Long, Q.W.; Wang, Y. Sodium Tetraethylenepentamine Heptaacetate as Novel Draw Solute for Forward Osmosis—Synthesis, Application and Recovery. Energies 2015, 8, 12917-12928.

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