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Energies 2015, 8(10), 11821-11845; doi:10.3390/en81011821

Recent Advances in Osmotic Energy Generation via Pressure-Retarded Osmosis (PRO): A Review

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 123 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712, Korea
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney (UTS), Post Box 129, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chuyang Tang
Received: 31 August 2015 / Revised: 24 September 2015 / Accepted: 14 October 2015 / Published: 20 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Osmotic Power)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1368 KB, uploaded 20 October 2015]   |  


Global energy consumption has been highly dependent on fossil fuels which cause severe climate change and, therefore, the exploration of new technologies to produce effective renewable energy plays an important role in the world. Pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) is one of the promising candidates to reduce the reliance on fossil fuels by harnessing energy from the salinity gradient between seawater and fresh water. In PRO, water is transported though a semi-permeable membrane from a low-concentrated feed solution to a high-concentrated draw solution. The increased volumetric water flow then runs a hydro-turbine to generate power. PRO technology has rapidly improved in recent years; however, the commercial-scale PRO plant is yet to be developed. In this context, recent developments on the PRO process are reviewed in terms of mathematical models, membrane modules, process designs, numerical works, and fouling and cleaning. In addition, the research requirements to accelerate PRO commercialization are discussed. It is expected that this article can help comprehensively understand the PRO process and thereby provide essential information to activate further research and development. View Full-Text
Keywords: pressure retarded osmosis; salinity gradient energy; osmotic power; PRO-hybrid process pressure retarded osmosis; salinity gradient energy; osmotic power; PRO-hybrid process

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, J.; Jeong, K.; Park, M.J.; Shon, H.K.; Kim, J.H. Recent Advances in Osmotic Energy Generation via Pressure-Retarded Osmosis (PRO): A Review. Energies 2015, 8, 11821-11845.

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