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Energies 2014, 7(7), 4116-4139; doi:10.3390/en7074116

Analysis of Occupants’ Visual Perception to Refine Indoor Lighting Environment for Office Tasks

Graduate School of Culture Technology, Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea
Department of Building & Plant Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719, Korea
Department of Interior Architecture & Built Environment, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 April 2014 / Revised: 17 June 2014 / Accepted: 18 June 2014 / Published: 27 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design and Operation 2014)


The combined effects of color temperature and illuminance in a small office on visual response and mood under various lighting conditions were examined in this study. Visual annoyance tests were conducted using a sample of 20 subjects in a full-scale mock-up test space. Computer and paper-based reading tasks were conducted for 500 lx and 750 lx illuminance levels under 3,000 K, 4,000 K and 6,500 K conditions. Two hypotheses were considered for the test in this study. The primary hypothesis was that visual perception is affected by the color temperatures of light sources. The secondary hypothesis was that better moods, such as relaxed and cozy feelings, are associated with low color temperatures given equal illuminance levels. The visual environment under the 3,000 K condition was characterized by glare and brightness, resulting in visual discomfort when target illuminance was higher than 500 lx. Occupants preferred 500 lx under the 6,500 K condition, and 500 lx and 750 lx under the 4,000 K condition, reporting better visual satisfaction when performing office tasks. Prediction models for visual comfort suggest that the less that subjects are visually bothered by light during tasks, the more visual comfort they feel. User satisfaction with light source color is critical for the prediction of visual comfort under different lighting conditions. Visual comfort was the most influential factor on mood. Lower color temperature was associated with better mood at lower illuminance levels, while higher color temperature was preferred at higher illuminance levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: color temperature; illuminance; visual response; reading task; office; visual comfort; mood color temperature; illuminance; visual response; reading task; office; visual comfort; mood

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Lee, J.-H.; Moon, J.W.; Kim, S. Analysis of Occupants’ Visual Perception to Refine Indoor Lighting Environment for Office Tasks. Energies 2014, 7, 4116-4139.

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