Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Fast Estimation of State of Charge for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Previous Article in Journal
Performance Analysis of the Vehicle Diesel Engine-ORC Combined System Based on a Screw Expander
Previous Article in Special Issue
Design and Evaluation of a Photovoltaic/Thermal-Assisted Heat Pump Water Heating System
Energies 2014, 7(5), 3420-3437; doi:10.3390/en7053420
Article

Hierarchical Communication Network Architectures for Offshore Wind Power Farms

1
 and 2,*
Received: 14 March 2014; in revised form: 21 April 2014 / Accepted: 14 May 2014 / Published: 22 May 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1186 KB, uploaded 22 May 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Nowadays, large-scale wind power farms (WPFs) bring new challenges for both electric systems and communication networks. Communication networks are an essential part of WPFs because they provide real-time control and monitoring of wind turbines from a remote location (local control center). However, different wind turbine applications have different requirements in terms of data volume, latency, bandwidth, QoS, etc. This paper proposes a hierarchical communication network architecture that consist of a turbine area network (TAN), farm area network (FAN), and control area network (CAN) for offshore WPFs. The two types of offshore WPFs studied are small-scale WPFs close to the grid and medium-scale WPFs far from the grid. The wind turbines are modelled based on the logical nodes (LN) concepts of the IEC 61400-25 standard. To keep pace with current developments in wind turbine technology, the network design takes into account the extension of the LNs for both the wind turbine foundation and meteorological measurements. The proposed hierarchical communication network is based on Switched Ethernet. Servers at the control center are used to store and process the data received from the WPF. The network architecture is modelled and evaluated via OPNET. We investigated the end-to-end (ETE) delay for different WPF applications. The results are validated by comparing the amount of generated sensing data with that of received traffic at servers. The network performance is evaluated, analyzed and discussed in view of end-to-end (ETE) delay for different link bandwidths.
Keywords: wind turbine; wind power farm; communication network; IEC 61400-25; logical nodes; Ethernet; OPNET wind turbine; wind power farm; communication network; IEC 61400-25; logical nodes; Ethernet; OPNET
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmed, M.A.; Kim, Y.-C. Hierarchical Communication Network Architectures for Offshore Wind Power Farms. Energies 2014, 7, 3420-3437.

AMA Style

Ahmed MA, Kim Y-C. Hierarchical Communication Network Architectures for Offshore Wind Power Farms. Energies. 2014; 7(5):3420-3437.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahmed, Mohamed A.; Kim, Young-Chon. 2014. "Hierarchical Communication Network Architectures for Offshore Wind Power Farms." Energies 7, no. 5: 3420-3437.


Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert