Energies 2014, 7(4), 2004-2026; doi:10.3390/en7042004
Article

Sodium Silicate Behavior in Porous Media Applied for In-Depth Profile Modifications

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Received: 17 January 2014; in revised form: 10 March 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 31 March 2014
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Abstract: This paper addresses alkaline sodium silicate (Na-silicate) behavior in porous media. One of the advantages of the Na-silicate system is its water-like injectivity during the placement stage. Mixing Na-silicate with saline water results in metal silicate precipitation as well as immediate gelation. This work demonstrated that low salinity water (LSW, sea water diluted 25 times) could be used as a pre-flush in flooding operations. A water override phenomenon was observed during gel formation which is caused by gravity segregation. Dynamic adsorption tests in the sand-packed tubes showed inconsiderable adsorbed silicon density (about 8.5 × 10−10 kg/cm3 for a solution with 33 mg/L silicon content), which is less than the estimated mono-layer adsorption density of 1.4 × 10−8 kg/cm3. Na-silicate enhanced water sweep efficiency after application in a dual-permeability sand-pack system, without leak off into the oil-bearing low permeability (LP) zone. Field-scale numerical sensitivity studies in a layered reservoir demonstrated that higher permeability and viscosity contrasts and lower vertical/horizontal permeability ratio result in lower Na-silicate leakoff into the matrix. The length of the mixing zone between reservoir water and the injected Na-silicate solution, which is formed by low salinity pre-flush, acts as a buffer zone.
Keywords: sodium silicate (Na-silicate); gelation time; temperature; low salinity water (LSW); sand-pack
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Akhlaghi Amiri, H.A.; Hamouda, A.A.; Roostaei, A. Sodium Silicate Behavior in Porous Media Applied for In-Depth Profile Modifications. Energies 2014, 7, 2004-2026.

AMA Style

Akhlaghi Amiri HA, Hamouda AA, Roostaei A. Sodium Silicate Behavior in Porous Media Applied for In-Depth Profile Modifications. Energies. 2014; 7(4):2004-2026.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Akhlaghi Amiri, Hossein A.; Hamouda, Aly A.; Roostaei, Alireza. 2014. "Sodium Silicate Behavior in Porous Media Applied for In-Depth Profile Modifications." Energies 7, no. 4: 2004-2026.


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