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Energies 2014, 7(4), 1876-1898; doi:10.3390/en7041876
Article

Economic Scheduling of Residential Plug-In (Hybrid) Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Charging

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Received: 13 January 2014 / Revised: 19 March 2014 / Accepted: 19 March 2014 / Published: 25 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grids: The Electrical Power Network and Communication System)

Abstract

In the past decade, plug-in (hybrid) electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been widely proposed as a viable alternative to internal combustion vehicles to reduce fossil fuel emissions and dependence on petroleum. Off-peak vehicle charging is frequently proposed to reduce the stress on the electric power grid by shaping the load curve. Time of use (TOU) rates have been recommended to incentivize PHEV owners to shift their charging patterns. Many utilities are not currently equipped to provide real-time use rates to their customers, but can provide two or three staggered rate levels. To date, an analysis of the optimal number of levels and rate-duration of TOU rates for a given consumer demographic versus utility generation mix has not been performed. In this paper, we propose to use the U.S. National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) database as a basis to analyze typical PHEV energy requirements. We use Monte Carlo methods to model the uncertainty inherent in battery state-of-charge and trip duration. We conclude the paper with an analysis of a different TOU rate schedule proposed by a mix of U.S. utilities. We introduce a centralized scheduling strategy for PHEV charging using a genetic algorithm to accommodate the size and complexity of the optimization.
Keywords: electric vehicles; economic dispatch; energy management electric vehicles; economic dispatch; energy management
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Maigha; Crow, M.L. Economic Scheduling of Residential Plug-In (Hybrid) Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Charging. Energies 2014, 7, 1876-1898.

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