Energies 2014, 7(3), 1517-1538; doi:10.3390/en7031517
Article

Extended Distributed State Estimation: A Detection Method against Tolerable False Data Injection Attacks in Smart Grids

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Received: 6 November 2013; in revised form: 7 February 2014 / Accepted: 27 February 2014 / Published: 12 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grids: The Electrical Power Network and Communication System)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: False data injection (FDI) is considered to be one of the most dangerous cyber-attacks in smart grids, as it may lead to energy theft from end users, false dispatch in the distribution process, and device breakdown during power generation. In this paper, a novel kind of FDI attack, named tolerable false data injection (TFDI), is constructed. Such attacks exploit the traditional detector’s tolerance of observation errors to bypass the traditional bad data detection. Then, a method based on extended distributed state estimation (EDSE) is proposed to detect TFDI in smart grids. The smart grid is decomposed into several subsystems, exploiting graph partition algorithms. Each subsystem is extended outward to include the adjacent buses and tie lines, and generate the extended subsystem. The Chi-squares test is applied to detect the false data in each extended subsystem. Through decomposition, the false data stands out distinctively from normal observation errors and the detection sensitivity is increased. Extensive TFDI attack cases are simulated in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 14-, 39-, 118- and 300-bus systems. Simulation results show that the detection precision of the EDSE-based method is much higher than that of the traditional method, while the proposed method significantly reduces the associated computational costs.
Keywords: smart grids; security; false data injection (FDI); bad data detection; extended distributed state estimation (EDSE)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, D.; Guan, X.; Liu, T.; Gu, Y.; Shen, C.; Xu, Z. Extended Distributed State Estimation: A Detection Method against Tolerable False Data Injection Attacks in Smart Grids. Energies 2014, 7, 1517-1538.

AMA Style

Wang D, Guan X, Liu T, Gu Y, Shen C, Xu Z. Extended Distributed State Estimation: A Detection Method against Tolerable False Data Injection Attacks in Smart Grids. Energies. 2014; 7(3):1517-1538.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Dai; Guan, Xiaohong; Liu, Ting; Gu, Yun; Shen, Chao; Xu, Zhanbo. 2014. "Extended Distributed State Estimation: A Detection Method against Tolerable False Data Injection Attacks in Smart Grids." Energies 7, no. 3: 1517-1538.


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