Energies 2014, 7(2), 607-618; doi:10.3390/en7020607
Article

Nanofibrillated Cellulose (NFC): A High-Value Co-Product that Improves the Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol Production

Received: 19 November 2013; in revised form: 22 January 2014 / Accepted: 27 January 2014 / Published: 7 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass and Biofuels 2013)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Cellulosic ethanol is a sustainable alternative to petroleum as a transportation fuel, which could be made biologically from agricultural and forestry residues, municipal waste, or herbaceous and woody crops. Instead of putting efforts on steps overcoming the natural resistance of plants to biological breakdown, our study proposes a unique pathway to improve the outcome of the process by co-producing high-value nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), offering a new economic leverage for cellulosic ethanol to compete with fossil fuels in the near future. In this study, glucose has been produced by commercial enzymes while the residual solids are converted into NFC via sonification. Here, we report the morphology of fibers changed through the process and yield of glucose in the enzymatic hydrolysis step.
Keywords: nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC); cellulose nanocrystals (CNC); cellulosic ethanol; economics; nanocellulose (NCC); cellulose; enzyme
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MDPI and ACS Style

Song, Q.; Winter, W.T.; Bujanovic, B.M.; Amidon, T.E. Nanofibrillated Cellulose (NFC): A High-Value Co-Product that Improves the Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol Production. Energies 2014, 7, 607-618.

AMA Style

Song Q, Winter WT, Bujanovic BM, Amidon TE. Nanofibrillated Cellulose (NFC): A High-Value Co-Product that Improves the Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol Production. Energies. 2014; 7(2):607-618.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Song, Qiong; Winter, William T.; Bujanovic, Biljana M.; Amidon, Thomas E. 2014. "Nanofibrillated Cellulose (NFC): A High-Value Co-Product that Improves the Economics of Cellulosic Ethanol Production." Energies 7, no. 2: 607-618.

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