Energies 2013, 6(12), 6274-6292; doi:10.3390/en6126274
Article

A Methodology for Defining Electricity Demand in Energy Simulations Referred to the Italian Context

Received: 26 September 2013; in revised form: 21 November 2013 / Accepted: 22 November 2013 / Published: 2 December 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Electricity consumption in Europe is constantly increasing, despite the fact that in recent years, huge efforts in terms of programs and regulations have been made towards energy demand reduction and energy systems improvement. Since the electricity demand affects both the operation of the supply and distribution plants and the thermal loads of buildings, the importance of providing a proper definition of demand profiles is evident. The main aim of the paper is to provide a set of standard electricity profiles that can reasonably be adopted as input in energy simulations related to the built environment, with particular regards to the Italian context. The work presented in this paper originated within a wider long lasting research aimed at developing a platform for buildings’ energy simulations at district level, with particular reference to the Italian conditions. In this context, it was necessary to define hourly profiles regarding both occupancy and electricity use for lighting and appliances related to different building uses and typologies. For this purpose, the main methods and references for defining electricity loads in buildings were evaluated and average hourly profiles were accordingly developed for residential and commercial buildings. Then the related internal gains were determined and compared to the current Italian standards.
Keywords: electricity demand in buildings; internal gains; dynamic simulations; district energy systems
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MDPI and ACS Style

Caputo, P.; Gaia, C.; Zanotto, V. A Methodology for Defining Electricity Demand in Energy Simulations Referred to the Italian Context. Energies 2013, 6, 6274-6292.

AMA Style

Caputo P, Gaia C, Zanotto V. A Methodology for Defining Electricity Demand in Energy Simulations Referred to the Italian Context. Energies. 2013; 6(12):6274-6292.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Caputo, Paola; Gaia, Costa; Zanotto, Valentina. 2013. "A Methodology for Defining Electricity Demand in Energy Simulations Referred to the Italian Context." Energies 6, no. 12: 6274-6292.

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