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Energies 2012, 5(9), 3178-3197; doi:10.3390/en5093178
Article

Optimization of Nitrogen and Metal Ions Supplementation for Very High Gravity Bioethanol Fermentation from Sweet Sorghum Juice Using an Orthogonal Array Design

1
,
2,3
,
4
 and
2,3,*
1 Graduate School, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand 2 Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand 3 Fermentation Research Center for Value Added Agricultural Products, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand 4 Department of Plant Science and Agricultural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 June 2012 / Revised: 1 August 2012 / Accepted: 17 August 2012 / Published: 24 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass and Biofuels 2012)
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Abstract

Optimization of four parameters, i.e., zinc (Zn2+), magnesium (Mg2+), manganese (Mn2+) and yeast extract for bioethanol production from sweet sorghum juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP 01 under very high gravity (VHG, 270 g·L−1 of total sugar) conditions was performed using an L9 (34) orthogonal array design. The fermentation was carried out at 30 °C in 500-mL air-locked Erlenmeyer flasks at the agitation rate of 100 rpm and the initial yeast cell concentration in the juice was approximately 5 × 107 cells·mL−1. The results showed that the order of influence was yeast extract > Mn2+ > Zn2+ > Mg2+ and the optimum nutrient concentrations for the ethanol fermentation were Zn2+, 0.01; Mg2+, 0.05; Mn2+, 0.04; and yeast extract, 9 g·L−1. The verification experiments under the optimum condition clearly indicated that the metals and nitrogen supplementation improved ethanol production efficiency under the VHG fermentation conditions. The ethanol concentration (P), yield (Yp/s) and productivity (Qp) were 120.58 ± 0.26 g·L−1, 0.49 ± 0.01 and 2.51 ± 0.01 g·L−1·h−1, respectively, while in the control treatment (without nutrient supplement) P, Yp/s and Qp were only 93.45 ± 0.45 g·L−1, 0.49 ± 0.00 and 1.30 ± 0.01 g·L−1·h−1, respectively.
Keywords: bioethanol; trace elements; nitrogen source; orthogonal array design; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; sweet sorghum juice; very high gravity (VHG) fermentation bioethanol; trace elements; nitrogen source; orthogonal array design; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; sweet sorghum juice; very high gravity (VHG) fermentation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Deesuth, O.; Laopaiboon, P.; Jaisil, P.; Laopaiboon, L. Optimization of Nitrogen and Metal Ions Supplementation for Very High Gravity Bioethanol Fermentation from Sweet Sorghum Juice Using an Orthogonal Array Design. Energies 2012, 5, 3178-3197.

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